Monterrey, city, capital of Nuevo León estado (state), northeastern Mexico. At an elevation of about 1,765 feet (538 metres) in the west-central part of the state, Monterrey sprawls over the semiarid floodplain of the Santa Catarina River, which spills eastward from the flanks of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Parts of the city are set against the scenic backdrop of Mount Silla, which rises above the plain to an elevation of more than 5,500 feet (1,700 metres). Pop. (2000) 1,110,909; metro. area, 3,374,361; (2010) 1,135,512; metro. area, 4,089,962.
Founded as a Spanish settlement in 1579, Monterrey grew slowly, owing to Indian resistance, periodic floods, and a lack of mineral wealth. By 1775 it had only a few hundred residents, but in the 19th century the city mushroomed into a major population centre. During the Mexican-American War (1846–48) it was captured by U.S. troops, many of whom ravaged the city before order was restored. Large-scale foreign investment was attracted after 1882, when Monterrey was linked by rail with Laredo, Texas. By the turn of the century, thousands of workers were producing iron, brass, steel, wagons, woolen textiles, beer, and flour. In spite of a devastating flood in 1909, the city continued to develop rapidly, particularly after the Inter-American Highway was begun in 1930.
Monterrey is the heart of one the country’s largest urban agglomerations. With a mixture of services and manufacturing, it is also the key to Nuevo León’s status as the third largest state economy in Mexico, after the Federal District and the state of México. Heavy industries such as ironworks and steelworks produce steel sheet-rolls and an array of other metal products. Monterrey’s wide range of light manufactures include textiles, beer, processed foods, chemicals, and glass and plastic products. On the piedmont to the north and east of the city, irrigated crops are grown, including cotton, citrus fruits, sugarcane, cereals (especially corn [maize] and wheat), and vegetables. Monterrey is the chief Mexican beneficiary of the large Falcon (Falcón) Dam and Reservoir project, on the lower Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte); local rivers also provide hydroelectric power.
High-rise hotels and office buildings mark the central business district, above which looms the lava-red Lighthouse of Commerce, a 230-foot (70-metre) observation tower symbolizing the economic aspirations of the city. The city’s amenities also include shopping malls, golf courses, and a convention centre, which hosts large trade shows. The varied urban landscape—with slums and fashionable districts sometimes in close proximity—reveals Monterrey’s blend of wealthy, middle-class, and poor residents. But its general urban development contrasts strongly with the relative poverty of smaller cities and rural districts.
The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (1943) is one of Mexico’s largest educational institutions. The city is also the site of Nuevo León University (1933), Labastida University (1947), the Regiomontana University (1969), and the University of Monterrey (1969). It is on main highways, railroads, and air routes between Laredo, the port of Tampico (on the Gulf of Mexico in Tamaulipas state), and Mexico City.